Angel "Java" Lopez en Blog

Publicado el 24 de Octubre, 2016, 14:04

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Veamos hoy qué unificación apareció en los sesenta del siglo pasado:

We are now in a position to return to the subject of unification. In the late 1960s the Weinberg–Salam model of electroweak interactions put together electromagnetism and the weak force into a unified framework. This unified model was neither dictated nor justified only by considerations of simplicity or elegance. It was necessary for a predictive and consistent theory of the weak interactions. The theory is initially formulated with four massless particles that carry the forces. A process of symmetry breaking gives mass to three of these particles: the W+, the W−, and the Z0. These particles are the carriers of the weak force. The particle that remains massless is the photon, which is the carrier of the electromagnetic force.

Aunque no lo menciona, el bosón de Higgs (en realidad sus cuatro variedades) tiene su relación con estas partículas W+, W-, Z0. De hecho, tres variedades de Higgs se acoplan a estas partículas, y otra queda "suelta", la que conocemos como "el" bosón de Higgs.

El modelo de estas fuerzas es la de los campos cuánticos. Cada fuerza despliega un campo de este tipo (diferente de un campo clásico), y cada campo convive con los demás, pero con interacciones entre ellos.

Maxwell’s equations, as we discussed before, are equations of classical electromagnetism. They do not provide a quantum theory. Physicists have discovered quantization methods, which can be used to turn a classical theory into a quantum theory – a theory that can be calculated using the principles of quantum mechanics. While classical electrodynamics can be used confidently to calculate the transmission of energy in power lines and the radiation patterns of radio antennas, it is neither an accurate nor a correct theory for microscopic phenomena. Quantum electrodynamics (QED), the quantum version of classical electrodynamics, is required for correct computations in this arena. In QED, the photon appears as the quantum of the electromagnetic field. The theory of weak interactions is also a quantum theory of particles, so the correct, unified theory is the quantum electroweak theory.

El procedimiento de cuantizar campos ha sido exitoso en todas las fuerzas:

The quantization procedure is also successful in the case of the strong color force, and the resulting theory has been called quantum chromodynamics (QCD). The carriers of the color force are eight massless particles. These are colored gluons, and just like the quarks, they cannot be observed in isolation. The quarks respond to the gluons because they carry color. Quarks can come in three colors.

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Angel "Java" Lopez
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Por ajlopez, en: Ciencia